Tourism Etymology

Teraswarta this time would like to discuss about knowledge. Trying to find from various sources as learning materials together. May be useful :
Theobald (1994) suggested that “etymologically, the word tour is derived from the Latin, ‘tornare’ and the Greek, ‘tornos’, meaning ‘a lathe or circle; the movement around a central point or axis’. This meaning changed in modern English to represent ‘one’s turn’. The suffix –ism is defined as ‘an action or process; typical behaviour or quality’, while the suffix, –ist denotes ‘one that performs a given action’. When the word tour and the suffixes –ism and –ist are combined, they suggest the action of movement around a circle. One can argue that a circle represents a starting point, which ultimately returns back to its beginning. Therefore, like a circle, a tour represents a journey in that it is a round-trip, i.e., the act of leaving and then returning to the original starting point, and therefore, one who takes such a journey can be called a tourist.

In 1941, Hunziker and Krapf defined tourism as people who travel “the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity.” In 1976, the Tourism Society of England’s definition was: “Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes.” In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home. In 1994, the United Nations classified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics:
  • Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country.
  • Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country.
  • Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another country.
Today, three schools discuss on the roots of tourism. The French School, led by A. Houlot argued that the term tourism comes from the old Aramaic Tur, which was used for the trip, exploration and movement of people in the Bible. This word had been used, for the first time, when Moses begins his expedition to the lands of Canaán. Nevertheless, another school of thought – the Onomastic School – considers the origin of the concept not from a linguistic perspective but rather links it to the last name of the French aristocracy Della Tour. According to this school, after Carlos V signs a treaty with England in 1516, in celebration of this event, the future king gives the Della Tour family exclusive rights to conduct commercial transport and related businesses. Last but not least, a third school focuses on the Anglo-Saxon world, situating the Theobald´s development under the lens of scrutiny. Surmising that the roots of the word tourism comes from the Ancient Anglo-Saxon term Torn, these scholars found evidence to think the term was coined in XIIth century which by farmers to denote those travels with intentions to return. Over centuries, the meaning of the word has been shifted to be politically adopted. By the middle of the 18th century, the English noblemen used the term “turn” to refer to the trips undertaken for education, search and culture exploration. In reality, the purpose of the noblemen’s trip to the different parts of Kingdom was to acquire knowledge that was later useful for governing.
In support to Leiper´s account, M. Korstanje provided evidence that shows the Grand-tour was enrooted in the ancient Norse Mythology. Following the examination of legends and texts, this research focuses on the fact that Odin/Wotan represents the archetype of a travelling-god who explored the world to get experience and knowledge. Norse-related texts are indeed unique in this sense. Although the touristic-drive seems to be inherent to almost all cultures and times, Korstanje explains that only by the influence of Norse Mythology, the Grand-tour was accepted as a common-practice in England and Europe later.
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